The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it
/usr, and the other
directories in the root directory are branches, which may have
their own branches, such as
/usr/local, and so
There are various reasons to house some of these
directories on separate file systems.
/var contains the
spool/, and various types
of temporary files, and as such, may get filled up. Filling up
the root file system is not a good idea, so splitting
/ is often
Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are separate virtual disks, such as Network File System mounts, described in Section28.3, “Network File System (NFS)”, or CDROM drives.
During the boot process (Chapter12, The FreeBSD Booting Process), file
systems listed in
automatically mounted except for the entries containing
noauto. This file contains entries in the
An existing device name as explained in Table3.3, “Disk Device Names”.
An existing directory on which to mount the file system.
The file system type to pass to mount(8). The default FreeBSD file system is
rwfor read-write file systems, or
rofor read-only file systems, followed by any other options that may be needed. A common option is
noautofor file systems not normally mounted during the boot sequence. Other options are listed in mount(8).
Used by dump(8) to determine which file systems require dumping. If the field is missing, a value of zero is assumed.
Determines the order in which file systems should be checked. File systems that should be skipped should have their
passnoset to zero. The root file system needs to be checked before everything else and should have its
passnoset to one. The other file systems should be set to values greater than one. If more than one file system has the same
passno, fsck(8) will attempt to check file systems in parallel if possible.
Refer to fstab(5) for more information on the format
/etc/fstab and its options.
File systems are mounted using mount(8). The most basic syntax is as follows:
This command provides many options which are described in mount(8), The most commonly used options include:
Mount all the file systems listed in
/etc/fstab, except those marked as “noauto”, excluded by the
-tflag, or those that are already mounted.
Do everything except for the actual mount system call. This option is useful in conjunction with the
-vflag to determine what mount(8) is actually trying to do.
Force the mount of an unclean file system (dangerous), or the revocation of write access when downgrading a file system's mount status from read-write to read-only.
Mount the file system read-only. This is identical to using
Mount the specified file system type or mount only file systems of the given type, if
-ais included. “ufs” is the default file system type.
Update mount options on the file system.
Mount the file system read-write.
The following options can be passed to
as a comma-separated list:
Do not interpret setuid or setgid flags on the file system. This is also a useful security option.
To unmount a file system use umount(8). This command
takes one parameter which can be a mountpoint, device name,
All forms take
-f to force unmounting,
-v for verbosity. Be warned that
-f is not generally a good idea as it might
crash the computer or damage data on the file system.
To unmount all mounted file systems, or just the file
system types listed after
-A. Note that
-A does not attempt to unmount the root file